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Where to buy silicone oil

Silicone Oil uses in different Product and Industries

Silicone is one of the most commonly used chemical ingredients known to human beings and the users are as young as newborns who drink milk from silicone-made feeder nipples to all the adults who consume silicone through various products used in day-to-day life tasks. Silicone has found its way into most aspects of life like technology, medical science, cosmetics, electronics, etc. But the question is how this material is found in so many things around us although two things containing silicone might not look like each other at all. The answers lie in silicone’s ability to exist in many physical forms e.g., Silicone oil, Silicone grease, Silicone rubber, Silicone resin, Silicone caulk, etc.

Silicone oil is probably one of the most fascinating chemicals we have today and all the buzz around the benefits of silicone oil is real.

Silicone oil uses

Let’s have a closer look here to understand more about silicone oil and see how we can get more out of it:

WHAT IS SILICONE OIL?

They can be defined as a linear chain of Poly siloxane that contains silicone and oxygen at alternating positions. Silicone atom in the linear chain has two spots where they can bind with carbon groups like methyl is bounded. Several polymers can be made out of it like Polydimethylsiloxane. Polymers can affect the degree of physical and chemical properties offered by silicone oils.

It is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless substance that can be found in a liquid or semi-solid state depending on the degree of polymerization. It also possesses a large compression ratio which gives it higher thermodynamic efficiency making it excellent for use as a hydraulic fluid in various machines. The viscosity-temperature coefficient of silicone is low (Viscosity and temperature are intervened. Viscosity is an important factor as low viscosity of lubricants means lower consumption of fuel. Generally, in petroleum oils, the viscosity is much more dependent on temperature, and at higher temperatures viscosity increases making fuel consumption greater than consumption at lower temperatures. Still, silicone oils show a little change in their viscosity with an increase in temperature) which makes them an excellent lubricant. Silicone oil has a much lower surface tension which helps it spread over the surface more easily and this property justifies its use in various cosmetic products where lower surface tension is important for the best and even results. This property of lower surface tension has also paved the path for silicone oil to be used as a defoamer and release agent. Heat resistance is another property that stands strong in favor of silicone to be used in multiple high-temperature open and closed systems. Temperatures even as high as 250°C do not affect silicone oil at all.

For this degree of heat resistance, it is used in lab research apparatus. While being heat resistant, silicone fluid interestingly is also an excellent low-temperature resistant substance. Dimethyl silicone oil can bear temperatures as low as -50°C and Methylphenyl silicone oil can remain fluid even at -65°C. Maybe this is the reason for use of silicone oil refrigerants used in refrigerators. These low-temperature-resistant properties make them excellent for use in some of the coldest regions around the world. Low thermal conductivity is another key feature of silicone oil as its thermal conductivity is as low as 25% compared to that of water. Low thermal conductivity means silicone oil can be used as heat transfer material or as an insulation material with better energy-efficient performance. Moreover, as we discussed earlier that viscosity and temperature are related, a general increase in viscosity means an increase in thermal conductivity, but in the case of silicone oil the thermal conductivity becomes constant above a viscosity of 100 mm2/s. Recently, the water-repellent characteristic of silicone fluid has found its way into the textile and coating industry. The ceramics industry, glass, and fiber production industries are the ones benefiting from this technology. Silicone oil offers high resistance to heavy stress applied to it, this is a feature that mineral oil doesn’t exhibit and often their oil molecules deform under sheer stress also there is a visible change in viscosity. Those silicone oils have a viscosity lower than 1000 mm2/s; stress doesn’t change their viscosity too much. But larger viscosity silicone oils might see a visible change in viscosity on the application of stress which is reversible because the oil molecules are not deformed unlike mineral oils and thus regain their original viscosity when the stress applied to them is removed. This feature makes silicone oil the ultimate king in the game as outperforms petroleum-based oils by 20 times. Although multiple properties of silicone oil make it a perfect lubricant, such as constant viscosity, heat resistance, and low-temperature resistance, it has poor lubrication where there is steel-to-steel friction. This feature doesn’t limit the use of silicone lubricant in steel-aluminum or steel-bronze parts of different machinery. Phenyl polymers of silicone oil have shown more resistance to radiations than other polymers and more phenyl groups added to the chain add more resistance to radiations. For the same reason, methyl phenyl silicone oil is more resistant to radiation than conventional dimethyl silicone oil. Thanks to its radiation-resistant properties, methyl phenyl silicone oil is used in the high-temperature parts of radiation equipment. Just like its viscosity, the electrical properties of silicone fluid are also constant over a wide variety of electrical frequencies and temperatures. Dielectric breakdown is often an issue encountered with the use of mineral oil products, but silicone oil is much better at handling dielectric breakdown. All the insulating oils absorb moisture which can affect the electrical insulation properties of these oils, silicone oil is no exception here so extra care is needed when using it as an insulation fluid and dehydration of silicone oil is necessary before applying electrical stress.

As of now, we have discussed all the important characteristics of silicone oil and a little overview of the uses of this magnificent fluid, it’s time for a deep discussion about how silicone oil is incorporated into our life.

IS SILICONE OIL SAFE FOR HUMANS?

As we know, Silicone oil is tasteless and colorless.

Does that mean it can be a perfect homicidal substance? Fortunately, it is not because it is not known to be a toxic substance. It is one of the beneficial chemical entities for the human body as it has found its way into various medical procedures. Also, silicone oil is used in a lot of cosmetic products which are applied directly on the skin, so silicone is also known to be beneficial for the skin. Certain drugs also include silicone oil as a basic component or as a vital ingredient for their desirous actions.

A detailed discussion of the medical uses of silicone fluid is given below in one of the paragraphs.

 

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SILICONE OILS

Silicone oil is a broad term, and several different types of silicone oil are derived by the polymerization of different groups at the silicone molecule.

  • Polymethyl hydrogen siloxane

Polymethyl hydrogen siloxane oil has found its application in waterproofing and anti-sticking treatment procedures as it is a colorless and odorless oil. It is also used for increasing the durability of certain materials by crosslinking and it also extends the liquid silicone rubber chain. The addition of an epoxy group to polymethyl hydrogen siloxane oil can fairly improve its absorption, reactivity, and coupling properties. Polymethyl hydrogen siloxane oil is used for the treatment of dry-surfaced materials such as fire extinguishing powder to make it more free-flowing and avoid clogging. Sometimes polymethyl hydrogen siloxane oil is used to create a waterproof film over metal surfaces.

  • Amino silicone oil

The introduction of an amino group at one of the methyls in the Poly siloxane chain produces amino silicone oils which are popular in the textile industry. The application of amino silicone oils in textile gives the following properties to the product:

  • Abrasion resistance
  • Elastic feeling
  • Soft Touch feeling
  • Excellent wrinkle recovery
  • Increased durability

Amino Silicone oil can also be used in hair care products such as shampoos. It is highly inflammable so it must be kept away from fire. Amino silicone oil is also used in the textile industry for giving a perfect finish to clothing material. Additionally, they are also being used for manufacturing, silicone emulsions, and also as smoothening agents.

  • Phenyl methyl silicone oil

Phenyl methyl silicone possesses properties like good insulation, high-temperature resistance and low-temperature resistance, and anti-ozone with small surface tension making it very useful in a lot of products.

It is further divided into three groups depending upon the ratio of phenyl groups present and all of them have different applications.

Low Phenyl methyl silicone oil can be used for instruments that often face very low temperatures.

Medium phenyl methyl silicone oil and high phenyl methyl silicone oil are more resistant to higher temperatures and radiations and thus they are used as lubricants.

  • Vinyl silicone oil

Vinyl silicone oil is known to be an intermediate material because it has methyl silicone-like properties which make it suitable for the smoothness and limpness of clothes. Vinyl silicone oil has better solubility with organic material as compared to that methyl silicone oil because of the double bond present in vinyl silicone oil.

Owing to this reactivity, let’s discuss some of the applications of vinyl silicone oil:

  1. It is one of the main ingredients in the manufacturing of liquid silicone rubber. It increases the strength and durability of silicone rubber.
  2. When allowed to react with organic materials, it produces a substance that has better properties than its conventional counterparts.
  • Hydroxy silicone oil

Hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane is a highly active silicone of medium and high-density hydroxy end-blocked Silicone polymer.

As the processing aid for silicone rubber can ameliorate the silicone rubber’s processing performance used as a silicone rubber structure regulator, as a fabric finishing agent, can significantly reduce the polyester thread’s smoothness, sewing capacity, high-temperature resistance, and antistatic performance.

It can make the fabric soft, smooth and elastic, and also give fabric, paper, and leather leakproof, water- and performance. Hydroxy silicone oil is used in hair products for beneficial effects like gloss, shine, and fluffiness. Hydroxy silicone oil has also been used in coating and pigments for providing characteristics such as defoaming effects, anti-convection, and anti-skinning effects.

 

As we have gone through different types of silicone oil, let’s have a closer look at how silicone oil is used in other products:

 1. SILICONE OIL AS PAINT ADDITIVE

Silicone oil/silicone fluid is often used as an additive in paints due to numerous characteristics which are displayed by silicone fluids such as lower surface tension. This property when impacted into paints by silicone oil makes the paint very even on the surface upon which it is being applied. The addition of silicone fluid in paints prevents several film flaws which are common without silicone additives.

silicone oil for paints industry

The following are some features imparted by silicone additives in paints:

  • Reduced Friction

Paint films have significantly higher friction coefficients, but the addition of silicone oil significantly reduces this friction and gives a smooth touch when applied.

  • Increased Durability

The addition of dimethyl silicone oil into paints leads to improvement in the durability of the paint and this particular feature arises due reaction of the methyl group with paint resins. The longer the paint survives on the surface, the better it is for the consumer, so silicone oils bring great value to the paint industry in terms of creating a strong reputation.

  • Water Repellent

As we discussed earlier silicone oil is water-repellent, the same effect is imparted to paints when silicone oil is added to them. Water-repellent property is of ultimate importance for paints, as these paints can be used in aqueous environments such as paints for boats and submarine, also these paints are of utmost importance in tropical areas because they have a more significant amount of moisture in the air than other areas and frequents rains make it water-repellent paints a better choice in saving the metals surfaces and nowadays these paints are used on walls, especially by those having kids.

  • Resistance to Salty Water

Functional groups in silicone oil react with metals and inorganic materials while being a constituent of paint and provide better resistance to salty water and better metal sticking properties. Owing to this resistance to salty water conditions, Paints with silicone oil as an additive are therefore useful on boats, submarines, marine oil drilling equipment, and all other metal structures which are bound to come in contact with marine water for a longer period.

  • Defoaming Effect

Silicone fluids when added to the paint prevent the foam-forming tendency of paints. Certain properties of silicone fluid are particularly important in imparting defoaming characteristics to the paint. These properties include insolubility in water, low chemical reactiveness or high chemical inertness, low surface tension, and high thermal stability. All of these are of sheer importance in defoaming effect. Note that pure silicone oils have relatively lower defoaming abilities than their synthetic derivatives.

  • Reduce the Convection effect

Silicone oil fairly reduces the convection effect when the paint is drying up. The same features help the paints to give a hammer tone finish to the surface as it doesn’t let the convection effect take place.

All of the above features make silicone oil a preferred choice for being used in paints as an additive.

2. SILICONE OIL, THE BEST LUBRICANT

Silicone oils or silicone fluid have proved to be an excellent lubricator for rubber and polymer surfaces and this ability to work as a lubrication agent is due to multiple characteristics of silicone oil which include low friction coefficient, stable viscosity over a variety of temperatures whether low or high. Silicone fluids are much more resistant to chemical decay oxidation, both of these properties allow the silicone oil to add corrosion protection to metal provinces.

Silicone fluid is not a good lubricant where there is steel-to-steel friction but has proven other ways for some other metals. Silicone oils were previously used to cool clutch fan assemblies in cars and other motor-operated vehicles.

3. SILICONE OIL INDUSTRIAL RELEASING AGENT

Releasing agents are substances that are applied to the molds to prevent the substances from sticking to the mold. Silicone oil is known to be one of the magnificent releasing agents. The main property which makes silicone oil a good releasing agent is low surface tension and thermal stability which allows it to spread perfectly over an irregular surface.  Silicone release agents in multiple industries, such as the food processing industry, tire manufacturing industry and die casting industry.

4. SILICONE OIL IN CAR POLISHING

Silicone oil has found its position in the automotive industry as a principal component in car polishes. Silicone oils offer shine and protection to the paint with added benefits of anti-corrosive actions. As silicone oil spreads evenly on the surface and it is transparent, it gives the perfect finish to uneven surfaces. The rubbery characteristic of silicone oil also provides an extra layer of transparent covering which protects the surface of the paint from normal polishes. Silicone oil not only covers the color of the car but can also cover the interior surfaces and even glass.

Silicone oil for car polishing

 

5. COSMETIC USAGE OF SILICONE OIL

Silicone oil is often used in cosmetics, primarily because of its low surface tension. Silicone oil helps the cosmetics to spread evenly onto the skin. Silicone oil in cosmetics locks the moisture coming out of the skin and prevents skin from getting dry and gives a twinkling look that shines on every angle. Lipsticks have silicone oils combined with phenyl group which gives a higher refractive index and helps the glossy appearance of lipstick on lips. Sunscreen lotions also have silicone oil as a primary component as the silicone oil removes stickiness and reduces the amount of oil coming out of the skin.

silicone oil used in cosmetic products

6. SILICONE OIL IN SILICONE SEALANT

Silicone oil is one of the best sealants, containing angle component silicone. In the utility of silicone sealant, thinking about the construction, regularly want to regulate the sealant viscosity, decrease the viscosity of the adhesive, enhance the development drift and the lubrication of the adherents, and consequently the desire of dimethyl silicone oil as a plasticizer. At the identical time, being part of the plasticized agent can cure adhesive complete overall performance improvement, enhance adhesive joints of excessive influence resistance, anti-fatigue overall performance, etc. On the other hand, the addition of plasticizers will affect the different residences of silicone sealant. The tensile electricity of the silica gel decreases step by step with the make bigger quantity of the plasticizer, and the elongation at ruin is increasing.


 7. HYDRAULIC OIL IN AIRCRAFT

Silicone hydraulics has been used in the aircraft industry for a long time and there are multiple advantages of using silicone hydraulic oil. Its high resistance to oxidation and great thermal stability leads to increased life of silicone hydraulics oil and require longer changing intervals making it cost-effective. High anti-wear properties and greater strength of film provided by silicone oil led to the protection of parts of the engine. Moreover, aircraft faces a variety of temperature going into the different layers of the sky and silicone oil can bear low temperatures like -50°C and higher temperatures of 250°C.

silicone oil used for aircraft engines

8. SILICONE EMULSION

When silicone oil is added to an aqueous environment, it results in the production of silicone emulsions. Silicone emulsification significantly reduces the viscosity, and this is sometimes required. The physical properties of silicone emulsion change abruptly after polymerization. Particularly if the viscosity change is needed, polymerization is a great idea. Silicone emulsions don’t have any health-related issue as it is less viscous and generally more aqueous. Silicone emulsions are widely used in the cosmetic industry and are now being used as release agents in the food processing industry to avoid stickiness to molds.

 

9. BREWING INDUSTRY AND SILICONE OIL

Silicone oil is being used in breweries for improving the quality of the beer particularly due to defoaming properties of the silicone oil. The silicone oil which is used in the brewing industry is known as food grade version of silicone oil. It is used in all three key processes of making a beer which are distillation, brewing, and fermentation of the beer.

Silicone oil used in beer industries

10. USAGE IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Silicone oil is an integral part of the textile industry, and it is so much important that some textile owners have started their production of silicone oil. Silicone oil addition to the textile manufacturing process brings in all the qualities needed in a perfect fabric such as a perfectly smooth and soft finish, and waterproofed material. Silicone oil adds a bunch of other characteristics to textile production like flame avoidance, antistatic performance, and color-fixing properties. When silicone oil is added to the dye in the dyeing process, the result is a cool finish. Silicone fluids are also known for increasing the storage time for textiles and also there is the benefit of sharp color appearance.

Silicone oil for textile industry


11. SILICONE OIL AS DEFOAMER

Silicone oil is often used as a defoamer particularly due to the small surface tension offered by it. Other features of defoamers or ant0foaming silicone oil include readily emulsification ability, not reactive at all, increased thermal stability compared to other defoamers, great ability to remove or vanish the foam, and high pH stability (can operate over a wide range of pH). Silicone oil defoamers can be stored for over 12 months if the temperature is kept below 45 Centigrade. Silicone defoamers are used in the oil and gas industry because silicone oil defoamers provide excellent benefits over organic substances. The quantity of silicone oil defoamers needed to achieve a certain defoaming effect is much lower than substances that need much more of it. Silicone oils are often used in little amounts in restaurants for defoaming and anti-stick properties. In such situations, silicone oil is combined with cooking oil for deep frying. Silicone oil should not replace cooking oil entirely as this can become lethal, and it is a very notable health hazard associated with always remembering to use food-grade silicone oil.

12. MEDICAL USES OF SILICONE OIL

Silicone oil has been famously known for its medical importance, although we have discussed in detail how silicone oil is medically used in ophthalmic surgery.

 

medical uses for silicone oil

Let’s have a brief overview again of some of the uses:

  • Ophthalmic Surgery: Silicone fluid tamponades have been used as a replacement for vitreous humor in the posterior chamber of the eye when there is retinal detachment due to several reasons. Silicone fluid when injected into the eye prevent aqueous humor to reach the retina and allows the retina to heal itself. Silicone oil is left in the eye for an extended period of about 3 months or in some cases can be left permanently. Several properties of silicone oil such as viscosity, low friction coefficient, and ability to resist sheer stress make it a perfect candidate for this application.
  •  Drug Delivery System: Recently trials have been conducted in which silicone oil-filled eyes have been shown to uptake more drugs than the normal eye and this pharmacokinetics may significantly improve the use of silicone oil as a drug delivery system for deep eye structures.
  • Medical Instruments Lubrication: Microbe infestations of medical instruments have been a major problem in surgical settings. Nitric Oxide has been known to be incredibly effective against microbes, bacteria in particular. When applied on the surface of medical instruments, silicone oils create a physical barrier between the microbe-infested environment and the tools. A new combination of nitric oxide-releasing silicone oils has been prepared for utilizing both properties of nitric oxide for antibacterial effects and the physical barrier and lubricating effects of silicone oil.
  • Anti-Flatulence Drugs: Silicone oil is used as a component for making drugs that reduce flatulence and it often comes in handy for such situations. Such drugs absorb gas formed inside the intestines.
  • Anti-Dermatitis Drugs: Certain silicone oil-based ointment preparations have been made for providing comfort to dermatitis patients having a burning sensation as silicone oils hold water and keep a check on the skin from getting dry. Silicone oils have also shown some anti-coagulation effects.

WHERE TO BUY SILICONE OIL?

Silicone oil is not a rare entity as it can be found online and in stores all over the U.S. and the same is for other countries, but the problem arises where to buy it in bulk for industrial use. The answer is pretty simple, the country where it produced most abundantly and yes, you guessed it right, Its China. China produces more than half of the silicone oil produced in the world and this is the best place to get your hands on the best quality silicone oil while paying an absolutely rare cost.

 

where to buy silicone oil

Now you might be thinking, why not buy it locally, the answer is pretty simple. High labor costs and pretty denting tasks to produce silicone oil make it pretty expensive and local companies sometimes are not capable of large-scale production.

The next question that might be coming to your mind is where to find these Chinese silicone oil companies. Again, the answer is in your hand. Alibaba might provide you with a lot of companies to buy silicone oil from, but the problem is some of these apparent sellers on Alibaba may not be manufacturers rather they are middle people trying to charge you more than the actual costs and an inexperience buyer may end getting fraud so the best choice to go around looking for silicone oil is Manufacturer companies’ websites.

HENG YI TEK is one of the suppliers of silicone fluids in China and provides its customers with the best quality with authority and truthfulness.

We provide a variety of silicone oil and related products; you can check by clicking down below on the list:

● SILICONE OIL SILICONE FLUID HY201

● VOLATILE SILICONE OIL HY-101, 2 CST DIMETHYL SILICONE OIL

● SILICONE DEFOAMER HY-8208

● SILICONE DEFOAMER AGENT HY8201

● SILICONE LEVELING AGENT HY1284

 

 

You can contact Heng Yi Tek for quotes and further details through email, WhatsApp, or phone number. Our sales will get in touch with you about our products and delivery time-related information.

silicone coating

Where and How Silicone can be used?

Silicone is one element that is very abundant and is top second on Earth, which is 25.8% on the earth’s surface. Most people know the function of metal silicone. Silicon semiconductor materials have boosted the development of the modern electronic industry. In addition, silicate-based inorganic silicon compounds are widely existing in nature, which is very convenient to use. Over thousands of years, people use silicone-related materials to produce cement, glass, ceramics, and other products.

Inorganic silicone compounds have been applied very early to produce products such as glass and ceramics. But organic silicone compounds do not exist in nature. It is mainly by synthesis and was synthesized around 50 years ago. Since industrialization in the 1940s, organic silicone compounds have developed rapidly.

Organic silicon, also known as silicone or siloxane, is a siloxane organic polymer cross-linked from silicon and oxygen. It has good characteristics with excellent heat resistance, cold resistance, oxidation resistance, and electrical insulation, which are not available from other general organic polymers. Among the organic silicon compounds, Poly siloxane has wide applications with its special structural characteristics.

 

Silicone materials are mainly divided into silicone oil (Dimethicone/PDMS/ Dimethyl Silicone Fluid, silicone defoamer, silicone leveling agent, polyether-modified silicone oil), silicone rubber, silicone resin, and silane coupling agent, etc. And there are various silicone material-related products. For example, Dow Corning has more than 4000 kinds of types of silicone materials.  If converted into Poly siloxane, the total global consumption of various silicone products is about 650,000 tons, which accounts for 0.65% of the global total output of different synthetic resin products. In addition, the sales amount of silicone products is as high as $6.5 billion, which accounts for 7% of the global total sales amount of different synthetic resin products.

Silicone can be widely used in the production of silicone fluid, agriculture silicone adjuvant, advanced lubricants, adhesives, dielectric oil, adhesives, paint, anti-foaming agents, gasket, seals as well as spare parts for rockets and missiles. In recent years, silicone material has been applied gradually from military or national defense to people’s daily life. Products for daily application include conductive buttons for computers, mobile phones, and electrical keyboards; contact lenses, swimming glasses, and swimming caps; nipple; silicone sealants for curtainwalls; finishing agent for high-end leather or fabric; silicone oil for shampoo. Silicone material has become a necessary part of people’s daily life. It also becomes a new chemical material with development on its rise.

 

silicone coating

With the prospects of silicone material, many developed countries put silicone materials as one of the most important new materials for the key development of the new century. Organic silicon is new material itself, meanwhile, it is also the new material foundation for the development of related industrial areas. Given the changing nature of organic silicon material and with the characteristics of small volume wide application, it is reputed as the catalyst for scientific and technological development. In the silicone industry, only a few upstream enterprises are on a large scale and most of them are small and medium-sized private enterprises engaged in the production of consumer products and additives.

Main silicone products and their applications

Silicone materials are mainly grouped into four categories: silicone oil with its secondary processing products, silicone rubber, silicone resin, and silane coupling agent. It is known as industrial MSG as silicone products have the properties of electrical insulation, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance, flame resistance, high and low-temperature resistance as well as physiological inertia. They are widely applied in building materials, electronic and electrical products, light industry, textile, plastics, rubber, machinery, transportation, medical and other industries. At present, the global annual production capacity of silicone products has reached more than 1.2 million tons. There are around 5,000 to 10,000 products, and the total market sales can reach US $7 billion.

Among the more than 10,000 kinds of silicone products can be roughly divided into three categories: raw materials, intermediates, and products. Silicone monomer refers to organic silicon polymer monomers synthesized by organic chlorosilane, such as raw materials like benzene chlorosilane, methyl chlorosilane, vinyl dichlorosilane, and some other materials.

Organic silicon intermediates refer to line-type or ring-type siloxane oligomers, such as octamethyl cyclotetra siloxane (D4), hexamethyldisilane (MM), dimethyl cyclosilane mixture (DMC), etc. Silicone products are the products produced by the polymerization reaction with add of inorganic fillers or modified additives. It mainly includes silicone rubber (high-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber and room-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber), silicone oil and its secondary processing products, silicone resin, and silane coupling agent. And through the sulfur molding process, silicone rubber can be made into conductive keys, seal gaskets, swimming caps, and many other consumer products.

Silicone monomer

Although there are many varieties of silicone products, its starting raw materials for production are limited to a few organic silicon monomers. The top amount is trimethylchlorosilane, followed by phenyl chlorosilane. In addition, trimethylchlorosilane, ethyl and propyl chlorosilane, vinyl chlorosilane, etc., are also necessary raw materials in the production of silicone products.

The production of silicon monomers is not complicated. The main raw material for silicon monomer is silicon block, methanol, and hydrogen chloride. At present, methyl hydrochloride monomer is synthesized in a boiling bed reactor. Silicon powder and chloromethane are reacted under a catalyst at a high temperature which makes a methyl hydrochloride mixture. And through efficient fractionation, the target fraction is obtained. Silicone monomers are made by hydrolysis, lysis, and condensation to get different products. With silicon monomer as the raw material and using different polymerization means and processes, different silicone products can be produced by adding various fillers and additives. The basic raw materials for the production of silicone oil, silicone rubber, silicone resin, and silane coupling agent are different kinds of organic silicon monomers. From these basic silicone monomers, thousands of organic silicon products can be produced. Organic silicon monomers mainly include methyl chlorosilane (methyl-monomer), phenyl chlorosilane (benzene-monomer), methyl vinyl chlorosilane, vinyl trichlorosilane, ethyl trichlorosilane, propyl trichlorosilane, γ-chloropropyl trichlorosilane, and fluor silane monomer. Among them, methyl chlorosilane accounts for the top amount, which is 90% of the total monomer, followed by phenyl chlorosilane.

Organo chlorosilane (methyl chlorosilane, phenyl chlorosilane, vinyl chlorosilane) is the basis of the whole silicone industry, and methyl chlorosilane is the pillar in the organic silicone industry. Most of the silicone polymers are Poly dimethyl siloxane made from trimethylchlorosilane. After adding other groups such as phenyl, vinyl, chlorophenyl, fluoroalkyl, etc., the product can meet special needs. The production process of methyl chlorosilane is very long and difficult for production technicians. This industry is technology-intensive and capital-intensive. Therefore, the basic manufacturing site of the major foreign companies is on a large scale and under centralized construction.  While the manufacturing of the downstream product is distributed as per their use and market conditions.

The key to the development of any polymer material is monomer technology development. The feature of the silicone industry is that the monomer production is concentrated, and the further process of silicone products are in different places. Therefore, the production of monomers plays an important role in the silicone industry. And the level of monomer production is a direct reflection of the development of the silicone industry. 

Silicone intermediates

Organic silicon monomers can be made into different silicone intermediates by hydrolysis (or lysis) and lysis. Silicone intermediates are the direct raw material to form silicone rubber, silicone oil, and silicone resin. Silicone intermediates include hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane(D3), octa-ethyl cyclic tetrasiloxane (D4), hexamethyldisilane (MM), dimethyl cyclosiloxane mixture (DMC), and other linear or cyclic dioxide series.

 Silicone rubber

Silicone rubber is one of the important products among silicone polymers. Among all rubber, silicone rubber can work under a wide temperature range, from -100℃~350℃. It is excellent in high and low-temperature resistance. According to its ionization mechanism, silicone rubber has three categories: organic peroxide-induced free radical crosslinking type (High temperature vulcanized silicone), condensation reaction type (Room temperature vulcanized silicone), and addition reaction type. High-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (HTV): thermal vulcanized silicone rubber is also called high-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber. All the direct chain siloxane with molecular weight between 500,000-800,000 is grouped as high-temperature vulcanized rubber. Usually, gum can be made with octa ethyl cyclo tetrasiloxane (D4) as the main raw material and get polymerized under the catalysis of acid or alkali. Then with oxides as a crosslinking agent and combined with different additives (such as reinforcing filler, thermal stabilizer, structural control agent, etc.), it can be made into homogeneous rubber additives. Various rubber products can be vulcanized by molding, extrusion or calendaring, etc.,

Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV) and addition reaction silicone rubber (LSR). Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber refers to the one which uses low molecular weight active Poly Organo siloxane as the base material and can be formed with the crosslinker and catalyst at room temperature.

Addition reaction silicone rubber refers to the silicone rubber which is made under the addition reaction with the platinum compound as catalyst. It has no by-products during the reaction. Usually, it is composed by vinyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane, silicone resin, low molecular weight polymethyl hydro siloxane, a platinum catalyst, and reaction inhibitor, etc., It is also known as liquid silicone rubber or LSR. Usually, additional reactive silicone rubber is also vulcanized at room temperature (medium temperature), so it is also classified as room temperature sulfide silicone rubber. The above two of these are referred to as room-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber.

 

Room-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber has a low molecular weight (from 10,000 to 80,000), and it is a viscous liquid. As per different package forms, it can be divided into single-component RTV silicone rubber and two-component RTV silicone rubber. Single-component RTV silicone rubber mixes the raw rubber evenly with filler, crosslinker, or catalyst in anhydrous conditions. And it will react with the moisture in the atmosphere after opening. While two-component RTV silicone rubber usually puts the raw rubber and crosslinker agent or catalyst in separate packages. They will link together when mixed in a certain ratio. Its reaction is not related to moisture.

Silicone Oil or Silicone Fluid

silicone oil is a kind of Poly siloxane liquid oil with different viscosity. It is not toxic, not corrosive, has no smell, and is not easy to burn. According to the chemical structure, silicone oil can be divided into methyl silicone oil, phenyl silicone oil, ethyl silicone oil, methyl hydrogen silicone oil, methyl chlorophenyl silicone oil, methyl phenyl silicone oil, methyl ethoxy silicone oil, and methyl trifluoro propane, etc., Among them, methyl silicone oil is the top item. By changing the polymerization degree of Poly siloxane and the type of organic group, or making Poly siloxane polymerized with other organic compounds, silicone oil with different properties can be made, such as waterproofing, anti-adhesion, demolding or defoaming. Silicone oil can also be grouped into linear silicone oil and modified silicone oil.

Silicone oil has many special properties. Its features include low viscosity-temperature coefficient, antioxidant resistance, good resistance to high and low temperature, high flash point, excellent insulation, low volatility, low surface tension, no corrosion to the metal, non-toxic, etc., With these properties, silicone oil has excellent effects in different applications. Among all kinds of silicone oils, methyl silicone oil is the most widely applied and is the most important type followed by methyl phenyl silicone oil. Different functional silicone oils and modified silicone oils are mainly used for special purposes.

 

silicone potting

Silicone resin

Silicone resin is a semi-inorganic polymer with silicon-oxygen-silicon as the main chain and with silicon atoms cross-linked with organic groups. It emerged along with the silicone monomer produced by the silicone monomer. Its production is a half year ahead of silicone oil and silicone rubber.

Silicone resin has outstanding weather resistance, which is better than any other organic resin. Even under strong ultraviolet irradiation, silicone resin still has good yellowing resistance. Silicone also has superior dielectric properties. The property can remain stable in a wide range of temperatures, humidity, and frequency. In addition, it also has good oxidation resistance, irradiation resistance, smoke resistance, waterproof, mildew prevention, and other characteristics.

 

Silane coupling agent

The general formula of the silane coupling agent can be Y-R-SiX3. X and Y are two active groups with different reaction characteristics. X is easy to bind strongly with clay, glass, silica, metal, and metal oxides, while Y is easy to bind with resin and rubber in organic material. With both functional groups that can have a good reaction with organic and inorganic material, a silane coupling agent can bond organic and inorganic material together to reach satisfactory bonding. According to the number of hydrolyzed groups (X groups) connected to silicon atoms, the silane coupling agents can be divided into two groups: trifunctional and difunctional types. In recent years, the production of silane coupling agents is controlled by several giant companies. To form a monopoly, every company has named its product types, and for the same product, there are various names and types on the market. Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) is the world’s largest silane coupling agent manufacturer and has the largest number of product varieties. Silane coupling agent was first developed as a glass fiber treatment agent for glass fiber-reinforced plastics. The silane coupling agent has improved the adhesion between the glass fiber and the resin, thus the mechanical properties of the reinforced plastics are significantly improved. With the rapid development of composites, silane coupling agent also develops rapidly both in variety and output. In recent years, silane coupling agent has adopted some specific functional groups and this can improve the surface properties of materials, which get new properties such as antimildew, antistatic, anticoagulation, and physiological inert. This has become a new application for silane coupling agents. Along with the new development, silane coupling agents become an important branch of organic silicone.

Development history of silicone

All compounds containing Si-C bonds are generally called organic silicon compounds. Those that connect organic groups like oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen to silicon atoms are also regarded as organic silicon compounds. Among them, the Poly siloxane composed of silicone oxygen bond (-Si-0-Si-) accounts for the top amount in silicone compounds. It is the most studied and widely applied type in silicone compounds, which is more than 90% of the total. Silicone material has both properties of organic materials and inorganic materials. It has many good properties such as high and low-temperature resistance, ozone resistance, electrical insulation, radiation resistance, flame retardant, water resistance, non-toxic and physiological inertia, and other excellent characteristics. The silicone material is widely applied in electrical, electronics, construction, chemical, textile, medical and other industries. The main functions of silicone include sealing, adhesion, encapsulation, lubrication, coating, lamination, surface activity, releasing, anti-foaming, crosslinking, waterproofing, penetrating, insertion and filling, etc. With the continuous development of the quantity and varieties of silicone material, it has become one of the most important materials in the new chemical material field. Many varieties of silicone are unable to be replaced by other chemicals.

 

silicone factory

Different phases of silicone chemistry

Beginning period: In 1863, French scientists Fiddle and Kraft heated silicon tetrachloride and zinc diethyl to 160℃ in a sealing tube and synthesized the first silicone compound, which is tetraethyl silane with Si-C bonds. Since then, much more tetraethyl silane derivatives have been synthesized. The forty years from 1863 to 1903 was the founding period of silicone chemistry, which was also referred to as the first phase

 

Growing period: From 1904 to 1937, there are many simple silicone compounds were synthesized. Meanwhile, some ring and linear Poly siloxane (with-Si-0-Si-bonds as the backbone). From the theoretical aspect, the synthesis of asymmetric silicon atomic compounds has been started, which created circumstances for the study of silicone photoactive isoforms. These 30 years were referred to as the growing period of silicone chemistry, which is also called the second phase.

Development period: Chemist Hyde from Corning as well as Patnode and Rojo from General Electronics realized that silicone polymer would have a good future, and they have actively improved the synthesis of silicone monomer. This helped the industrialization of silicone. In particular, Rojo invented the direct synthesis method for methyl chlorosilane in 1941. This was a revolution in the production of silicone and was a good foundation for the large-scale production of silicone compounds. In the 1940s, when some of the major countries realized industrialization, the equilibrium reaction methods of Poly organic siloxane were invented. And a complete system of industrial technologies was established. Different types of silicone oil, silicone rubber, silicone resin, and silane coupling agent with excellent performance have emerged. The development of the silicone industry was accelerated. The period from 1938 to1965 was called the third phase.

Boom period: Since 1966, further, consolidating, developing, improving, and utilizing the existing achievements, silicone was also developing in the new field. Some compounds which were impossible to make can also be synthesized. One of the groups with the fastest development is silicon —— metal bonding compounds. Especially chemical products formed by silicon and transition elements, and this has more practical value. And silicone chemistry has yielded fruitful results. So, the period from 1966 has been called the fourth phase.

 

The development of science has promoted the development of production and construction. And the production in turn has new requirements for scientific research. In many industries, thermal resistance is needed. But normal organic polymers cannot meet the demands. Natural silicate is long known but its -Si-0-Si- bond is fragile. Therefore, chemists introduced silicon atoms with an organic group, which can make them a linear structure or low-degree crosslinked polymer. Thus, the silicone material can form flexible or elastic material, and the application would be further enlarged. The study on Organo Poly siloxane also started. Chemist Hyde from Corning Glass first combined silicone and polymer chemistry and gained experience in silicone polymerization. Under his guidance, silicone resin was produced for electronic insulated glass cloth. From 1938 and 1941, Hyde and his collaborators developed many more Poly organic siloxane products. Meanwhile, Dow Chemical also started the study and production of Poly organic siloxane. In 1942, a dimethyl silicone oil and toluene silicone pilot plant was established.

In 1943, Dow combined with Corning glass and established the world-famous Dow-Corning Chemical. They built the synthetic Poly siloxane factory in Midland. And soon they developed DC4 ignition sealing material, which was applied on aerial aircraft in World War II. Then Dow Corning Chemical gradually became one of the world’s largest professional manufacturers of silicone products.

In the past 20 years, the application of silicone technology has achieved a brilliant level. Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber and silane coupling agents got comprehensive development. Silicone polymer for biological and medical use also emerged. Now, many more silicone compounds were invented for a wide application. Many impossible things can be realized now due to the development of silicone material

 

From an annual output of 10,000 tons in 1997 to about 850,000 tons per year in 2015, methyl chlorosilane has a rapid development, which is top among all the monomers. In the future, with methyl chlorosilane production capacity increasing, the organic silicon industry will have further development in technology, with both capacity and quality getting onto a new level.